Edited by: Tecnológico Superior
Corporativo Edwards Deming
July - December Vol. 6 - 2 - 2022
e-ISSN: 2576-0971
Received: 09 November, 2021
Approved: January 04, 2022
Page 67-76
Digital marketing trends and their impact on
commercial micro-enterprises in the city of
Digital marketing trends and their impact on commercial
micro-enterprises in the city of Guayaquil
Alfredo Marcel Yagual Velastegui
Karla Maribel Ortiz Chimbo
Maria Tamara Ortiz Luzuriaga
Gissela Monserrate Saltos Santana
Currently, there is a constant growth and economic
development in the city of Guayaquil. Part of this, thanks
to a sector such as wholesale and retail trade that
contributes substantially on the real gross domestic
product GDP (constant). In the present research, we
reviewed theories related to online and offline digital
marketing and how they contribute to the digital marketing
of commercial microenterprises. To gain new insights and
a new point of view on digital marketing trends, the study
applied the qualitative research approach. It is concluded
that digital marketing has a transcendental impact on local
economic growth. Its added value to this economic sector
carries weight in this new post pandemic era.
Keywords: Marketing strategy, digital marketing,
commercial microenterprise, Guayaquil.
Master in Business Administration with mention in Logistics and Transportation.
University of Guayaquil, Ecuador, alfredo.yagualv@ug.edu.ec, ORICD: 0000-0001-9156-
Master in Business Administration. University of Guayaquil, Ecuador,
karla.ortizch@ug.edu.ec , ORICD: 0000-0001-6722-244X
Master in Business Administration. University of Guayaquil, Ecuador,
maria.ortizl@ug.edu.ec ORICD: 0000-0002-9849-9350
Master in Business Administration and Management. University of Guayaquil, Ecuador,
gissela.saltoss@ug.edu.ec, ORICD: 0000-0002-6225-1871
Tecnológico Superior Corporativo Edwards Deming Vol. 6 - 2 - 2021 https://revista-edwardsdeming.com/index.php/es
e-ISSN: 2576-0971
En la actualidad, se observa un constante crecimiento y desarrollo económico de la
ciudad de Guayaquil. Parte de ello, gracias a un sector como el comercio al por mayor
y por menor que contribuye de manera sustantiva sobre el producto interno bruto PIB
real (constante). En la presente investigación, se revisó teorías relacionadas al marketing
digital en línea y fuera de línea y como contribuyen en el marketing digital de las
microempresas comerciales. Para obtener nuevos conocimientos y un nuevo punto de
vista sobre las tendencias de marketing digital, el estudio aplicó el enfoque de
investigación cualitativa. Se concluye que el marketing digital tiene un impacto
transcendental en el crecimiento económico local. Su valor agregado a este sector
económico tiene un peso en esta nueva era post pandemia.
Palabras clave: Estrategia de marketing, marketing digital, microempresa comercial,
The activities of the wholesale and retail trade sector contribute to the real (constant)
gross domestic product (GDP) of the city of Guayaquil. However, most of the
commercial microentrepreneurs apply marketing mechanisms that are somewhat
obsolete. This is due to the informal activity they have inherited in recent times. The
Covid-19 pandemic had a drastic impact on the way of marketing through social
networks. Authors such as Armijos (2019) state that "social networks are changing the
way consumers perceive products and have opened up another possibility for business".
Compulsory confinement prompted the search for new avenues of commerce. Then,
micro-entrepreneurs through WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, Titok among others,
reached consumers. Therefore, the present research proposes to identify the trends of
Digital Marketing and its impact on commercial microenterprises in the city of Guayaquil.
Today, marketing is essential for all entities, regardless of their size or economic activity.
Because of this, it is vital to define what the term refers to; authors such as Jiménez
(2020) indicate that
Marketing is a discipline based on the analysis of the market and competition to
understand consumer behavior. The objective of marketing is based on attracting new
customers and building customer loyalty through communication and sales techniques.
(p. 61)
Therefore, marketing has been evolving in recent times. Important researchers such as
Philip Kotler, established Marketing 1.0, hence it was adapting to an interconnected
world, until Marketing 4.0 where digital media are essential. The first proposal was
Marketing 1.0. "This was born at a time when mass production (after the Industrial
Revolution) was in full swing and there were no criteria for consumption, people simply
consumed what the market offered regardless of the different characteristics of the
products or services".(Suarez, 2018, p. 5). As a result, sales in Marketing 1.0 were
Tecnológico Superior Corporativo Edwards Deming Vol. 6 - 2 - 2021 https://revista-edwardsdeming.com/index.php/es
e-ISSN: 2576-0971
focused on the product, but not on the real needs of consumers. Some time later, the
Industrial Revolution, where consumers had a tendency to buy compulsively. It was at
that time that production began, regardless of the characteristics of the products or
services offered.
Subsequent research, in the opinion of Suárez (2018) determined that "with a more
customer-centric approach, Marketing 2.0 emerges, where the customer pays attention
to the different offers and makes decisions." (p. 6). In this event, the entities evidenced
the need to meet the specific expectations of consumers and offer them added value.
This is through the use of information technologies, achieving instant customer loyalty.
In short, it was not based on the product but on the consumer as a priority.
Then, Marketing 3.0 evolves as a response to customer needs as a new perspective
focused on environmental awareness. "It seeks not only to satisfy needs, but we are
looking for the company to give us socially and environmentally conscious products."
(Jimenez, 2020). In this scenario, we seek to connect spirituality with emotional
marketing. Therefore, taking into consideration the corporate values as a point of
reference and differentiator in a competitive market. Then, it is the adoption of
proposing the creation of strategic plans that meet the needs, feelings and values of
consumers, focused on environmental welfare and social responsibility, achieving greater
market segmentation.
To conclude, the conception of Marketing 4.0 is sized in the context of a world with
greater interaction, an advantage that entities can take to reach a larger portion of
customers in the market using a combination of digital and traditional marketing.
"Marketing 4.0 is that of intelligent machines, i.e. machines that are able to understand
human beings and that learn from us as they interact with people." (Jimenez, 2020).
Another criterion, like Suarez's (2018) "in this new stage in the evolution of marketing,
the emergence of Big Data and data analytics brings a new opportunity for companies
and especially for marketing departments." (Suarez, 2018, p. 9). To this end, it can be
determined that through the use of technological tools, combined with online
interaction, customer expectations can be exceeded. As a result, the application of new
technologies related to marketing has impacted the growth of many entities. The
information with a high level of accuracy about tastes, needs and interests. Likewise,
consumer trends in various electronic channels, resulting in a fundamental database for
decision making. Table 1 is attached. From marketing 1.0 to 4.0.
Tecnológico Superior Corporativo Edwards Deming Vol. 6 - 2 - 2021 https://revista-edwardsdeming.com/index.php/es
e-ISSN: 2576-0971
Table 1. From Marketing 1.0 to 4.0
Marketing 3.0
Based on
Real consumer
Social and
Prediction and
needs and
Respect for the
through social
market trends
Note: Adapted from (Evolution from marketing 1.0 to 4.0, 2018, p. 9).
For Hunt (1976) offline marketing is an alternative as it is an advertising strategy that is
managed for publication and release entirely offline. So, offline marketing strategies can
be applied in a variety of different media. Simply put, including through radio, print media,
television, banners and more, Similarly, Sirdeshmukh et al. (2002) consider offline
marketing to refer to any type of marketing that does not involve online marketing methods and
strategies. Therefore, offline marketing applies media channels that are offline from the
Internet to elaborate and achieve traditional marketing goals, such as developing
campaigns and increasing sales volume. Offline media channels for advertising include
telemarketing ads, radio, television, billboards, brochures and any other type of physical
In a nutshell, before the Internet era, offline marketing was widely applied by all business
owners. However, times changed and so did sales. Today, most brands focus on designing
and developing the ideal digital marketing strategy, without wasting a minute to think
about the benefits of offline marketing. In the case of Kotler & Armstrong (2004) who
stated that offline marketing is a strategy that, like online marketing, must be carefully
developed, planned and organized. When it comes to media channels outside the Internet
space, there are many things that people should pay attention to.
According to Kotler & Armstrong (2004) online marketing consists of measures and
activities to promote products and services and establish relationships with customers
through the Internet. Similarly, Burrett (2008) understands online marketing as "carefully
targeting users and getting them to interact with you while they are engaged in the most
intimate and personal medium ever invented". While Urban (2008) explains that "the
application of internet and related digital technologies to achieve marketing objectives".
Tecnológico Superior Corporativo Edwards Deming Vol. 6 - 2 - 2021 https://revista-edwardsdeming.com/index.php/es
e-ISSN: 2576-0971
These criteria are consolidated into one foundation. A leading author such as Chaffey
(2007) has articulated the most consolidated definition. This is:
Apply digital technologies that form online channels (Web, email, databases, plus
mobile/wireless and digital TV) to contribute to marketing activities aimed at achieving
profitable customer acquisition and retention (within a multi-channel buying process and
customer lifecycle) by improving our understanding of our customers (their profiles,
behavior, value and loyalty), and then deliver integrated communications and online
services that meet their individual needs.(p. 35).
Therefore, the different definitions related to online marketing take into consideration
the interaction and the creation of relationships with customers. In short, a reference
point that differentiates it from traditional offline marketing.
The fourth industrial revolution, known as Industry 4.0, drives physical industrial systems
to be connected to the digital world, forcing organizations to leave their status quo. That
is why, "this reality represents a precedent for business groups to conceive this new
revolution in order to migrate to this paradigm from where they are today." (Mora &
Guerrero, 2020, p. 2)
Another conception of Industry 4.0 involves the incorporation into industrial processes
of data management techniques, taking advantage of the developments that, in the field
of Big Data, are being carried out in other areas. "The aim of these techniques is the
optimization of processes, which will bring as a result economic benefits and especially
important improvements in the quality and safety of medicines."(Parra, 2020, p. 9)..
By history and tradition, the capital of Guayaquil is known as the capital of Guayaquil. It
has a higher commercial growth compared to other cities in the country. "Guayaquil,
commercial capital of Ecuador. Throughout history, commerce has been consolidated
as the main economic activity of the city. Guayaquil is the city with the greatest
contribution to the commercial GDP of the country." (Guayaquil Chamber of
Commerce, 2019). Thus moves the migration from different corners of Ecuador to an
economic pole, where national and foreign citizens see as an opportunity to improve
their quality of life. "In fact, one third of the national trade turnover is carried out in the
main port". (Guayaquil Chamber of Commerce, 2019).
In relation to the data presented by the Chamber of Industries of Guayaquil (2020)with
information up to 2018, it concludes that the sector with the greatest contribution of
Guayaquil to the GDP is the commercial sector, being one of the most important, as
shown in Figure 1 below: