Edited by: Tecnológico Superior Corporativo
Edwards Deming
January - March Vol. 6 - 2 - 2023
e-ISSN: 2576-0971
Received: March 14, 2023
Approved: May 4, 2023
Page 1-14
Virtual teaching strategy for online learning of the
subject Entrepreneurship and Management in the
Estrategia de enseñanza virtual para el aprendizaje en línea
de la asignatura Emprendimiento y Gestión en el bachillerato
Carlos Andres Acosta Vergara
María Josefina Hurtado Mora
María Alejandra Saucedo James
Roberto Milanés Gómez
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a change in the
educational environment, it went from being face-to-face
to virtual, it is necessary to think about didactic strategies
for subjects that need a different treatment in their
development and explanation. The objective of this article
is to propose a virtual teaching strategy for the
strengthening of online learning of the subject
Entrepreneurship and Management in the baccalaureate.
The research conducted is of hermeneutic approach and
descriptive-explanatory scope. The sample selected was 58
students of the third year of high school of the Unidad
Educativa Fiscal Durán, a probabilistic intentional sampling
by quotas was applied, which facilitated the interpretation
of results on the lack of use of virtual learning
environments and technological tools by students and
teachers. In addition, educators presented difficulties in
planning, development and evaluation for online classes. A
virtual teaching strategy was designed that generates
interaction and reflection in the teaching-learning process
from the virtual environment, which has the following
phases: virtual teaching-learning planning, virtual teaching-
* Ingeniero Comercial, Universidad Técnica de Babahoyo
E-mail: cacostav@utb.edu.ec, ORCID: 0000-0001-7755-4923
Ingeniera en Sistemas, Universidad Técnica de Babahoyo
E-mail: mhurtadom@utb.edu.ec, ORCID: /0000-0003-1470-7587
Ingeniera en Sistemas, Universidad Técnica de Babahoyo
E-mail: msaucedoj@utb.edu.ec, ORCID: 0000-0001-9595-5552
Doctor en Ciencias Pedagógicas, Universidad de Guayaquil
E-mail: roberto.milanesg@ug.edu.ec , ORCID: 0000-0002-6879-3559
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e-ISSN: 2576-0971
learning communication and activity, and online evaluation
of assimilated learning.
Keywords: Virtual Teaching Strategy, Computer Assisted
Teaching, Online Learning, Correspondence Teaching,
La pandemia de la COVID-19 ha provocado un cambio en
el ámbito educativo, pasó de ser presencial a virtual, es
necesario pensar en estrategias didácticas para las
asignaturas que necesitan un tratamiento diferente en su
desarrollo y explicación. El objetivo del presente artículo
es proponer una estrategia de enseñanza virtual para el
fortalecimiento del aprendizaje en línea de la asignatura
Emprendimiento y Gestión en el bachillerato. La
investigación realizada es de enfoque hermenéutico y de
alcance descriptiva-explicativa. La muestra seleccionada es
de 58 estudiantes de tercero de bachillerato de la Unidad
Educativa Fiscal Durán, se apli un muestreo
probabilístico intencional por cuotas, que facilitó la
interpretación de resultados sobre la carencia del uso de
entornos virtuales de aprendizaje y herramientas
tecnológicas por parte de estudiantes y docentes. Además,
los educadores presentaron dificultades en la planificación,
desarrollo y evaluación para las clases en línea. Se diseñó
una estrategia de enseñanza virtual que genera interacción
y reflexión en el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje desde
el ámbito virtual, que tiene las siguientes fases: planificación
virtual de enseñanza-aprendizaje, comunicación y actividad
virtual de enseñanza-aprendizaje, y evaluación online de los
aprendizajes asimilados.
Palabras clave: Estrategia Enseñanza Virtual, Enseñanza
asistida por ordenador, Aprendizaje en línea, Enseñanza
por correspondencia, Bachillerato.
Global society, as well as education, are facing a process of change due to the influence
of COVID-19, the main transformations adopted were the mandatory replacement of
face-to-face attendance by online education. The virtual environment replaced the face-
to-face scenarios, the educational subject left aside physical contact, which was replaced
by the virtuality of networks and applications for online learning. All this undoubtedly
complicates the current pedagogical process, to the extent that teachers, students and
Edwards Deming Corporate Technology - July - September Vol. 6 - 2 - 2023 https://revista-edwardsdeming.com/index.php/es
e-ISSN: 2576-0971
even families were not prepared for an abrupt change in the way of teaching and learning.
In this sense, the educational community has generated new environments or spaces for
pedagogical interaction between people, teachers have assumed the role of online
education, in short lapses have changed the teaching-learning systems and how they are
executed, which is positive for development, the use of digital tools can strengthen the
skills and abilities of learners, the diversity of online resources allows the exchange of
experiences with digital skills achieved.
The haste of the transition from the face-to-face to the virtual surprised the theoretical
systems of the Pedagogical Sciences, because, although a tendency towards the use of
Educational Technologies was appreciated, its application was not considered to be so
urgent, nor in the current massiveness. The consequence of this is that there are few
levels of general theoretical support for virtual teaching and its general implementation;
for pedagogues, the theorization of online education is a problem to be studied.
In the particular case of teaching performance, the authors highlight the subject of
Entrepreneurship and Management, which has its own characteristics in its development
process with contents on the social economic system that guarantees production and
the conditions for good living. Achieving knowledge and skills in the subject of
Entrepreneurship and Management, in the current context, are limited from the virtual.
All of the above, the constant dialogue with experienced teachers in the area of
Entrepreneurship and Management, as well as an exhaustive review of the scientific
literature, allow us to pose a guiding question for the development of this scientific
article: How to develop virtual teaching and online learning of the subject of
Entrepreneurship and Management in high school?
The use of virtual teaching strategies has a positive impact on the performance of
students, by promoting a participatory climate in classes, a better involvement with the
activities to be performed that generates greater motivation; therefore, a virtual teaching
strategy is proposed to strengthen online learning of the subject Entrepreneurship and
Management in the baccalaureate.
An exploration of theoretical sources, which have studied the research variables in the
different indexed databases (DOAJ, Latindex, Dialnet, Scielo, Redalyc and Google
Scholar) was carried out, providing scientific results, where a theoretical inquiry was
conducted through search chains with their respective translations into English and
Portuguese on the research topic.
From the search in different databases, 9 research antecedents were selected, 6 of them
have a direct relationship with two descriptors and scope: (Vega and Balladares 2021;
Yánez, 2020; Banda, 2020; Orrala, 2020; Lope et al., 2018, Sutadji et al., 2021).
After each of the studies on e-learning strategy in learning, the following topics can be
identified as studied:
Edwards Deming Corporate Technology - July - September Vol. 6 - 2 - 2023 https://revista-edwardsdeming.com/index.php/es
e-ISSN: 2576-0971
Didactic strategies and Moodle for teaching-learning in entrepreneurship and
Methodological strategy and technological tools to develop learning in
entrepreneurship and management.
Influence of Tics strategies for student learning in the baccalaureate.
Adaptation and assessment strategies for online learning in education.
Entrepreneurship guide to optimize the quality of learning in Entrepreneurship
and Management.
Once the main results on the variables and the field of study were analyzed, it was
possible to reach the conclusion that the didactic strategies that have been developed
for working with the subject Entrepreneurship and Management have been carried out
in the classroom, since this has not been conceived for virtual teaching, since it is of
great interest for Pedagogical Sciences to look at it from the virtual environment.
In order to define the study variables, the theory of Valverde and Solís (2021), who
define the virtual teaching strategy as the procedures or resources used by the teacher
to promote meaningful learning, is considered among the most important authors. The
main task of the teacher is the continuous accompaniment of his students, towards the
fulfillment of the learning achievements, being the consequence of a good interaction
and communication between the teacher and the student (pp. 1117-1119).
Meanwhile, Fernandez and Arteaga (2020), define as a set of actions and operations that
allow to achieve the objective of the class; through resources, techniques, tasks and all
those procedures used by the teacher to create learning environments that facilitate the
interaction of resources and the learner, in order to achieve the assimilation of
information and the intention to acquire new knowledge in a meaningful way,
strengthening collaborative and reflective learning. (p. 94).
According to Álvarez et al. (2005), online learning is one of the new conceptions of
education that refers to the development of teaching-learning dynamics through
experiences in synchronous and asynchronous activities, for the acquisition of
knowledge that strengthen autonomous and independent learning (p. 19).
For its part Acosta et al. (2019) states that online learning should induce the student to
explore new queries through Google or You Tube, to improve the understanding of the
topic proposed in synchronous activities, so the student improves his understanding of
the subject, with critical analysis of the results addressed, achieving a structural and
radical change in the formative dynamics of learning. (p. 19).
The strategy is the set of processes and methods that make it possible to achieve a
particular objective, which implies, sequentially, its fulfillment towards obtaining the
desired results. Each method compiles and strengthens the expected final product, thus,
in order to obtain concrete and desirable results, it is necessary to plan the pertinent
strategies that adjust to the context of the outlined objective. The teacher strategically
Edwards Deming Corporate Technology - July - September Vol. 6 - 2 - 2023 https://revista-edwardsdeming.com/index.php/es
e-ISSN: 2576-0971
plans the resources and activities as an appropriate strategy to achieve meaningful
learning in students (Camarena 2017, p. 20).
Therefore, online learning is considered as a strategy that the teacher uses to strengthen
autonomous and critical learning in each activity solved by the student, which is essential
to use virtual environments that enable the environment according to the interaction
with interactive resources and the student body, as a resilient response to the constant
change in the way of learning in the context of virtuality.
For the methodological procedure, the application of descriptive-explanatory research
was considered, with a purely hermeneutic approach, based on the epistemic needs of
the object of study of teaching and learning in the online modality, which needs to
respond to multiple unexplored categories from the current context, which has made it
an operating modality in an accelerated manner. From the above, it will be necessary to
explore the reality with scientific instruments that allow interpreting the relationship of
the teacher's strategic thinking for online teaching and learning (description), in order to
comprehensively understand it and arrive at conclusions of strategic thinking in the
subject Entrepreneurship and Management (explanation). It is the dialectic unity of these
two research modalities that will allow the proposed objectives to be met.
The study population considered for the present research is made up of 340 students
corresponding to the 10 parallel students of the third year of High School, in the
Specialty of Science and Technician and 3 teachers of the subject of Entrepreneurship
and Management of the Unidad Educativa Fiscal Durán.
The sample selection for the research is intentional non-probabilistic by quotas, based
on the following elements: The main researcher and teacher of the subject works with
40 percent of the third year of high school, four out of 10, with whom they can interact
directly in their research intention. Taking into account the possibilities of accessing and
directing the pedagogical process, 40 percent of the students of four of the parallels, an
analysis population of 146 students, of which 58 are selected as a sample for the study,
were acted upon.
To comply with the criterion of intentional selection, quotas were assumed for each
parallel, based on selecting students proportionally according to their academic
achievement, demonstrated in the exams of the subject Entrepreneurship and
Management according to the following criteria:
Top students in academic achievement by parallel according to group
Last students scored in academic achievement by parallel according to group
Taking into account the type of research assumed, the methods to be followed
were considered, from the full interaction of quantitative and qualitative. For the
data collection methods, the techniques of observation, interview and survey
Edwards Deming Corporate Technology - July - September Vol. 6 - 2 - 2023 https://revista-edwardsdeming.com/index.php/es
e-ISSN: 2576-0971
were used.
The observation of virtual classes was carried out in the subject of Entrepreneurship and
Management, in order to obtain information that would allow a documentary analysis of
how the online teaching-learning process is carried out. The interview with teachers was
applied in order to gather information on strategies for the development of virtual
classes in the learning of students. Likewise, the questionnaire to students provided
information about their perception of a teaching strategy model applied in virtual classes.
In relation to the above, an observation guide was used to measure the virtual classes,
allowing the assessment of the dimensions of planning, communication and evaluation of
both teaching and learning. The interviews to teachers and the questionnaire applied to
students (https://n9.cl/wkplz) on strategic indicators, achieve the task of making the
improvement proposal feasible in the virtual teaching strategy in online learning,
specifically in the subject of Entrepreneurship and Management.
The data obtained in the questionnaire items are assumed as a logical presentation of
the research results, which are contrasted with the observation and interview data to
perform a triangulation of the information obtained in the three instruments applied.
Table 1
Knowledge about virtual learning environments (Teams, Moodle, Edmodo) for the development
of the online class.
Totally agree
Strongly disagree
Over 67.25 percent of the students recognize virtual learning environments, with 32.76
percent expressing no knowledge in this regard. In the observation, the teacher uses
the platform regularly to share class material and activities to be performed. Although
in their criteria they stated that they make use of the Teams platform, they present
difficulties in mastering the environment.